SDLC provides a well-structured flow of phases that help an organization to quickly produce high-quality software which is well-tested and ready for production use. The second part of this step involves developing a prototype or mockup to show end-users what they can expect the system to look like once completed. It helps you by providing essential feedback during every phase of your project.

  • CI/CD is an enhancement to your SDLC, not a potential replacement.
  • In the maintenance stage, users may find bugs and errors that were missed in the earlier testing phase.
  • This is where teams consider the functional requirements of the project or solution.
  • Phase 3 defines the necessary specifications, operations, and features that will satisfy all functional requirements of the proposed system.
  • The C-suite of an enterprise does not enjoy the monopoly in decision-making, thanks to digital disruption.

Each model follows a particular life cycle in order to ensure success in the process of software development. In the end, developers usually come up with a testing report that forms up a test case by listing all the issues detected and fixed. Additionally, you can check the testing criteria and ensure the software product meets all the requirements defined by the SRS document.

Why is SDLC Important?

The initiation of a system begins when a business need or opportunity is identified. After the Concept Proposal is approved, the System Concept Development Phase begins. The foremost challenge for web developers is to choose the right technology. Cybersecurity has holistically been a well-funded and highly prioritized process at most organizations to protect enterprise systems against cyber threats. Businesses are adopting software-as-a-service or SaaS applications at an astounding rate.

systems development life cycle phases

In this phase, the database admin creates and imports the necessary data into the database. Developers create the interface as per the coding guidelines and conduct unit testing. They need to be open-minded and flexible if any changes are introduced by the business analyst. That incorporates the set of smaller “waterfalls”, where the small portions of changes are carefully analyzed, tested, and delivered through the repeating development cycles. Getting early feedback from the end-user enables the elimination of issues and bugs in the early stages of software creation.


Control objectives help to provide a clear statement of the desired result or purpose and should be used throughout the entire SDLC process. Control objectives can be grouped into major categories , and relate to the SDLC phases as shown in the figure. Software Development Life Cycle is a process used by the software industry to design, develop and test high quality softwares. The SDLC aims to produce a high-quality software that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reaches completion within times and cost estimates. An SDLC defines a sequence of activities during software creation, whereas STLC refers to a step-by-step list of activities required for reliable software testing.

More opportunities for stakeholders to give their input on projects . The lack of upfront planning makes big bangs extremely prone to errors. A good option for simple, low-value products that do not interact with customers. Maintaining documentation in a fast-paced agile SDLC is a challenge.

systems development life cycle phases

Just like we mentioned before, there are 7 separate stages of the system development life cycle process. Each of these phases requires involving different specialists and a diverse number of skills for successful project completion. The SDLC methodology is sometimes referred to as the waterfall methodology to represent how each step is a separate part of the process. After each step an organization must decide when to move to the next step.

Moreover, most of the drawbacks of the SDLC system can also be an advantage for most of the projects that involve detailed planning, more complex development, and strict progress evaluation. This is particularly important for large systems, which usually are more difficult to test on the debugging stage. The last but not least important stage of the SDLC process is the maintenance stage, where the software is already being used by end-users. This process involves detecting the possible bugs, defects, and errors, searching for the various vulnerabilities, etc, and can sometimes take up even more time compared to the app-building stage. Though this phrase may seem a little bit straightforward, it’s still possible to implement the minor changes and improvements if there are any. However, the efficiency of the finalized version of the system created can be analyzed only in the next stage – the software testing.

Feasibility Study or Planning

This includes the delivery of requirements used to create the Design Document Specification . This document details database tables to be added, new transactions to be defined, security processes, as well as hardware and system requirements. With Veracode, developers can find and fix flaws at the most cost-efficient point in the development process and produce more secure software with every release. The system development life cycle is an iterative, structured, and multistep process that is used by teams to create high-quality information systems. It involves the activities of planning, analysis, designing, building, testing, deploying, and maintaining a system that meets or exceeds client expectations. The coding phase in an SDLC focuses on translating the system design into code written in a specific programming language.

Our future-ready software products are powered by a frictionless human-centric design, enabling a competitive edge for our clients. This is where various software elements are monitored for performance, user experience, new security vulnerabilities, and more. By investing time in this phase, enterprises identify issues that may occur during the run and pull the strings necessary to achieve optimal performance. Across the testing phase, a series of functional and non-functional assessments are conducted.

Management and control

Programmers are called upon to undertake the task and are asked to design a code significantly reducing testing and maintenance efforts. This is the phase where the team works on the code requirements determined earlier and lays the groundwork for building the software. During this phase, the team creates the user interface , business logic, data structures, and other components that make the software. They also generate any documentation needed to support the project.

systems development life cycle phases

Baselines are an important part of the Systems Development Life Cycle . These baselines are established after four of the five phases of the SDLC and are critical to the iterative nature of the model .Each baseline is considered as a milestone in the SDLC. CI/CD is a set of practices and methods that speed up software systems development lifecycle delivery by introducing automation into an SDLC. CI/CD is an enhancement to your SDLC, not a potential replacement. Read about DevOps security best practices to see what else companies are doing to boost the safety of their SDLCs and pipelines. Improved communication between different teams and upper management.

What are the 5 phases in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

Being firstly introduced in the 1960s, the system development life cycle takes its origin literally with the development of the first software systems. So far, the SDLC has gradually transformed into a complex model of the software development process, that can be clearly seen and used within a specific software development model. In this phase, a designer takes the system requirements document created in the previous phase and develops the specific technical details required for the system. It is in this phase that the business requirements are translated into specific technical requirements. The design for the user interface, database, data inputs and outputs, and reporting are developed here.

System Development Life Cycle Spiral Model

Software engineers rarely have a say at the table, and software strategies are mulled over and defined two or three layers down in the hierarchy. This is mainly because software development is often seen as a cost center, something to be minimized and not prioritized. But as we have seen time and time again, neglecting software can have dire consequences for businesses.

Implementation can take many forms, depending on the type of system, the number and type of users, and how urgent it is that the system becomes operational. These different forms of implementation are covered later in the chapter. Big bang model is focusing on all types of resources in software development and coding, with no or very little planning. In this approach, the whole process of the software development is divided into various phases of SDLC. In this SDLC model, the outcome of one phase acts as the input for the next phase.

The life cycle approach of any project is a time-consuming process. Even though some steps are more difficult than others, none are to be overlooked. An oversight could prevent the entire system from functioning as planned. The sixth phase is when the majority of the code for the program is written.

In other words, the team should determine the feasibility of the project and how they can implement the project successfully with the lowest risk in mind. Troubleshooting and optimizing your code is easy with integrated errors, logs and code level performance insights. This article will explain how SDLC works, dive deeper in each of the phases, and provide you with examples to get a better understanding of each phase. The following are the most common System Development Life Cycle models and why you should use them. Once a business need is approved, the approaches for accomplishing the concept are reviewed for feasibility and appropriateness. The Systems Boundary Document identifies the scope of the system and requires Senior Official approval and funding before beginning the Planning Phase.

Information Systems for Business and Beyond

Defines all the tasks required for developing and maintaining software. Remember that you do not have to pick only one of the models discussed above—many companies benefit from combining two or more SDLC methodologies into a unique hybrid model that fits their specific use case. Regular risk analysis ensures the product is secure by design and you discover defects early in the SDLC. Each iteration goes through verification and requires either user or stakeholder feedback.

This stage requires a combined effort of business analytics, operations, leadership, development, and security teams. In some use cases, asking end users for input is also a valuable source of info. After the risks are identified, risk management measures are included in the sprint plan. For example, if you identified a risk where there are inconsistencies between the front and back end of the system what actions should you take?

Various definitions of the SDLC methodology exist, but most contain the following phases. Once the requirement analysis phase is completed the next sdlc step is to define and document software needs. This process conducted with the help of ‘Software Requirement Specification’ document also known as ‘SRS’ document. It includes everything which should be designed and developed during the project life cycle.

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